General Properties of Titanium
Element Category: Transition Metals
Physical Properties of Titanium
Std Atomic Weight: 47.867(1) g·mol−1
Melting Temperature: 1941 K, 1668 °C, 3034 °F
Boiling Point: 3560 K, 3287 °C, 5949 °F
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 0.420 µΩ·m
Thermal Conductivity: (300 K) 21.9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 8.6 µm·m−1·K−1
Applications of Titanium
Titanium's metallurgical characteristics make it the metal of choice for many diverse applications, including aerospace, industrial, chemical processing, marine, medical, sporting, and consumer goods. This metal's original application is in the military aerospace industry precisely because of its efficiencies in structural qualities resulting from titanium's strength and density. The titanium density varies according to grade and ranges from .160 lb/in3 to .175 lb/in3.
When exposed to oxygen, titanium creates a layer of a ceramic-like oxide film. It is used in applications where corrosion and erosion resistance are a concern. If the metal get scratched, as long as it is exposed to oxygen, the scratch will reheal itself with the oxide film.
Due to titanium's biocompatibility, the metal is used extensively in the human body, as hip and knee implants, pacemaker cases, dental implants, and craniofacial plates, to name a few specific medical applications.
Other properties that make titanium a "metal of choice" are its unique "look", the fact that it is nonmagnetic and can hold strength at high temperatures, and it has a relatively high melting point. Besides a high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance in many oxidizing environments, including brackish and saltwater and biocompatibility, includes its low modulus of elasticity, giving it flexibility and good thermal conductivity.